Internet Protocols and Network Security

Internet Protocols

Internet protocols allow a set of interconnected networks to communicate. Problems may occur breaking the TCP/IP communication between two communicating hosts. The problems can be hardware-related, software or even a combination of both software and hardware (Davidson, 2012). TCP/IP connectivity may occur inhibiting communication between the hosts. As such, a server administrator can perform troubleshooting to identify the problem. The problem can be a physical issue, LAN segment, IP connectivity issue or even a name resolution problem. Configurations and duplicate IP addresses are also major issues in TCP/IP.

A network administrator can use the Ping tool to identify primary issues from the destination device by IP address (Rosen, 2014). They can then troubleshoot the local connectivity problems. They can then use ping to ping from the source to the destination by address. If the test fails, they can troubleshoot using the domain server troubleshooting system. If it fails, they can ping using both the name and address. The traceroute tool can also be used to probe a path that a packet uses to traverse a network. The tool can identify issues that relate to TCP/IP connectivity to a network.

Checking local network connectivity requires pinging the destination by IP address if the destination is on the same subnet as the source (Cisco, 2016). Pinging using the default gateway can be necessary if the destination is on a different subnet. Disconnecting a device from the LAN and re-pinging the device can assist to identify a physical issue. The Traceroute is useful when finding a place in the path between hosts that are slowing down their communication. The trace route may not be useful when the packet paths change during packet tracing. Pings determine the ability of a packet to be distributed to address. Pings are unreliable as a lengthy ping may not indicate the unavailability of the host.

Network Security

Converged networks require high-level security to protect the underlying network infrastructure (Academy, 2016). Any security breach can topple critical services in an enterprise. An organization should, therefore, ensure that it develops and adopts reliable security mechanisms to protect its network. The policies and mechanisms should also reduce the risk that the critical infrastructure may face. The IT infrastructure continues to make a revolution with the increasing convergence of both voice and data networks.

The reduction of risks in the converged network may include a proper authentication for all people and devices in the network (Cisco, 2016). The authorization of the network devices also associates the devices with their roles. The network administrators should ensure that the converged systems have protective mechanisms to prevent any exploitation of the devices on the network such as VoIP and other applications. A dynamic response can also play a critical role in protecting the devices or the attack levels on critical infrastructure.

Both the network administrators and users are responsible for ensuring the security of the network. The users in a converged network should ensure that they follow the laid down procedures and rules (, 2016). They should also report any suspicious activity and scene that they identify in a network as it may be a loophole for a security attack. Network administrators should carry out regular network maintenance and monitoring tasks to ensure that the network works accordingly. The network administrators should also respond to any issue that arises regarding the organization’s network.




Academy, C. (2016). The Network as a Platform (1.2) > Exploring the Modern Computer             Network: Types, Functions, and Hardware. Retrieved 7 February 2016,       from

Cisco,. (2016). Troubleshooting TCP/IP. Retrieved 7 February 2016, from   

Davidson, J. (2012). An introduction to TCP/IP. Springer Science & Business Media.,. (2016). Computer and Network Security Policy | IT Services | University of   Arkansas. Retrieved 7 February 2016, from

Rosen, R. (2014). Internet control message protocol (ICMP). In Linux Kernel Networking (pp.      37-61). Apress.


Business Project



Apple is an organization that is known for its intelligence and services. The products of the company are well-designed to suit the requirements of the customers. Every product comes after a lot of research which is an integral part of the foundation of the company. The technological advancements that the company offers to its customers are the key element behind its huge success. Apart from that it is also important for an organization to develop a system to carry out its regular business activities so that they can concentrate upon the growth prospect even more.

The company has established itself as an epitome of success in front of its competitors. The main competitors of the company are Samsung, Lenovo, HP, Dell and Sony. All these companies have been trying to level themselves up with Apple’s growth but they have not been successful in doing the same as yet. The closest competitor for the company so far has been Samsung. The company has followed Apple quite closely in terms of its turnover and till date it has been giving tough competition to Apple but Apple remains the leader in the market so far.

Apple has launched several products to cater to the requirements of its customers. The company has launched iPhones, iPads, Mac range of laptops and computers and much more in accessories related with computers and mobiles. The company has recently launched iPhone 6S and iPhone 6S Plus which are another advanced versions of the phones that have been launched by the company previously. The computers and laptops of the company are known for their light weight and efficiency of applications.

In its most recent report of the year 2015 the company has announced a huge profit of $11.1 billion. The company has been growing since past several years and with continued innovation and creativity it has managed to stay on top of all the other companies in its genre. The iMac family of the company has been upgraded with new Retina Display technology which is another feather in the already full cap of the company.

iOS is the platform on which all the Apple devices run. This digital platform makes the applications run on the phones and this is one of the most highly upgraded platforms to work upon. The company keeps on updating the iOS and with every update there are certain improvements accommodated in the phones which make it even more efficient and interesting for the users further enhancing their loyalty towards the brand and attracting more customers every year. The company is high on innovation and it has successfully completed a lot of projects with unbeatable quality.

When it comes to the business activities the company incorporates some efficient strategies which make it better and smooth. The company uses activities like business intelligence, enterprise resource planning, customer relationship management and data mining as its popular techniques to keep the functions running smoothly (Benson, 2014). The company has implemented all these strategies quite accurately to the places these were required to get the maximum usage and results. This makes the company more profitable and improves the organizational culture as well.

The first technique to be discussed in this range is Business Intelligence. The Business Intelligence technique is one of the most common techniques used by companies for efficient transformation of raw data into information that is more meaningful and useful for the business analysis. Apple has used this technique mostly in surveying the market and bringing out useful information to incorporate into its marketing plans. The BI technology has been used abundantly by the company to identify new strategic opportunities.

Another business technique used frequently by the Apple Inc is Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) which is a software used for business process management. The ERP software is mostly used by the company to manage the business properly and automate all the back office functions. These functions may vary from being technical to human resource related and also related to customer services. These software techniques have been implemented in various aspects of the company which make Apple a more reliable company because of the swiftness of the functions without any errors.

The next technique that is important to be discussed in this context is the Customer Relationship Management. Commonly known as CRM this technique is a term used for practices, technologies and strategies to manage and analyze their interactions with the customers. This information is further used to analyze how the company is creating better relationships with its customers and how they can improve upon their customer relationship. Apple Inc has utilized this technique for a long time and it has created a very loyal market of its own. The company offers several facilities to its customers that are not available otherwise and this creates a better bond with the customers (High, 2014).

The company also uses a technique called Data Mining which is used to discover patterns in the otherwise large sets of data with the help of a computational process. The concept of data mining is a mélange of techniques like artificial intelligence, statistics, machine learning and database systems. The company has used this technique to find out the common strategies and techniques being used by its competitors and then innovate something better.

Apple Inc has used business intelligence and Data Mining as the computing tools to sort out large sets of data and turning them into profitable information. With the help of these data the company finds it capable of utilizing the correct set of information and put it to good use by improving their marketing and production strategies according to it. The ERP and CRM techniques on the other hand help the company in serving their clients in a much better way thus laying a foundation for its upcoming products. The company has put its feet at all the right places which ensures that it will be among the winners in the future as well.

The company has been successful in its history. It has seen many failures but the company has always taken a lesson from it and implemented the learnt lessons to create success. The use of the above mentioned techniques ensures that the company is concentrated upon creating the best of products for its customers and it is going to continue the journey of successful business functions by implementing better business techniques in future. The company invests a lot in its internal maintenance which includes business function softwares and other computing technologies to make it more useful.

Hence it can be said that Apple Inc has chosen the business techniques quite wisely and utilized them accurately which gives the quite apparent results. The company is gaining a lot from its customers and in return it is giving them the best of services. The success of the company is because of their persistence and consistent performance and these tools have a lot to do with it.



Benson, R.J., Ribbers, P.M., and Blitstein, R.B.  (2014) Trust and Partnership: Strategic    IT: Management for Turbulent Times.  Preface and Chapter 1.  Reread as necessary

High, P.A. (2014) Implementing World Class IT Strategy: How IT Can Drive        Organizational Innovation. Foreword and Chapter 1. Reread as necessary

McFarlan, F. W. (n.d.) The new strategic weapon: Information technology. Cambridge:     Harvard Business School Publishing. To be found in Content/Week 7.


Learning techniques



Art: Art as a way of expression makes it fun and comprehensive during learning. The pupils are allowed to interpret what they understand in their group discussions. This activity helps other group members to relate to each. Most importantly, it provides a platform to develop an understanding of activities and other topics (Anne, 2). Another role is the literal luminary. In authentic luminary, the pupils point out interesting passages of a book. The kids are allowed to say what in the books connects them to events outside the classroom. Lastly, the word wizard role helps to indicate unusual texts during learning. The functions mentioned above aim at making the children develop interests as well as enjoy their literature book.

Group discussion: As the students are acquainted with the group discussion format, they seize to use roles. The teacher’s roles in the group circles also stop once the children settle in the groups. The kids tend to conduct their class work more comfortably if they are confident. The presence of the teacher is at times intimidating (Anne, 3). Most children freely share among their peers as opposed to being in the presence of an authority such as teachers. In addition, group circles provide an arena for students to explore their interests instead of being controlled by adults. However, teachers come in handy when handling difficult tasks. When kids are on their own, they might not produce an up to the standard product. A teacher can put the pupils productively occupied as opposed to when they are left by themselves.

Differentiated instructions: In most traditional learning circles, pupils are grouped according to their ability. As a result, others who have trouble with learning tend to lag behind. pupils should be ableto examine what they are reading with the others. Children who find it elusive to understand can gather a lot from literature circles. This is because learning circles give them an opportunity to share insights with a group( Anne, 4). It is obvious that students with lesser ability will feel inadequate if they are grouped with children with greater abilities. As such, it is significant for teachers to meet the students prior to assigning them to various learning activities. As such, the teachers get the opportunity to evaluate individual abilities in reading. At the same time, the teacher will also provide insight on how it will be to be in different groups.

It is advisable that the teacher lets the students write at least three names of those they want to be in the group with. The opportunity allows the pupils to try to find their feet and avoid future embarrassment.  The approaches provided in the literature circles offer a platform in which students can interact freely during literature and foster comprehension skills.

Goal setting: This technique is well praised and encouraged as it facilitates knowledge sharing. In this case, the pupils learn and research in private to share with group members during the discussion. This is crucial in motivating and encouraging members to do more research as one member may know much today than others and encourage other members to study better for the next day. The social environment is an important aspect; it gives pupils ability to know how each member can work collectively in a group (Anne, 5). It is also significant promoting sharing of information and achievement of the set objective. Oral communication is essential in all parts of this system since it is widely used for communication and sharing. Its importance includes learning and improves understanding and strengthening the system.

Characteristics of an affective teacher

Attentiveness: From the case study, the author points out relevant information that a teacher can relate. This article raises the question; whether or not the learning techniques are workable according to pupils’ perspectives. This information about the corporative learning techniques is essential to developing schools. It has enormous benefit nearly in all aspect in school. For instance, as a teacher will implement the discussion circle used in this system in lessons to ensure that pupils research appropriately for new content and share it with others to improve the level of understanding (Luois, Lawrence and keith, 23).

Engagement: It is important to note that it is beneficial to engage children in policy making. In this case, it is important to ensure that all class policies made together with the pupils ensure a high level of discipline. This is necessary since every child will know exactly what is wrong as suggested by him or her therefore in case of mistakes punishment will not be seen as hatred or unfair practice. The efficiency and effectiveness of cooperative learning has been attributed to its nature of being shareable and engaging. In the case of engagement, the smaller the group, the higher the benefit of sharing as each member gets enough time-sharing the views.

Patience:  a patient teacher allows brainstorming and correction that is essential in developing each member. As stated earlier, every child is special in terms of development. While some learn quickly, for others it requires patient in order to help them catch up with others in the classroom. On the other hand, some children tend to be good in some subjects as opposed to others (Benard and Olivia, 13). Therefore, a teacher should be in a position to keep up with such trends.

Encouraging: at the beginning of the case study, the teacher is keen to encourage the children by applauding their good work. This reflect6s in the way the children feel proud after a good day’s work. As such, it encourages the pupils to do better in their class work.


In conclusion, cooperative learning technique is important as it is used to boost morale. This method is also different from the old means since previously the teacher was the sole decision maker and learners the followers. Therefore, cooperative is significant as it is used to enable children to make a wise choice without being forced but only guided. The technique also transforms the previous goals of the school of teaching the children to a role where children are involved in learning and making the school better.

This system is also essential in setting goals since pupils are involved in the process. it makes them have a sense of belonging in the classroom. Besides that, it improves the work of school from being a teaching center to a collectively learning center whether a pupil is highly involved in learning through questioning, researching and answering. This system has many advantages in the advancement of the students’ knowledge. Therefore, it has significant benefits in efficiency and effectiveness of learning. Implementing it will only ensure that the school and the student meet their goals.





















Works cited

Anne, H. case study 4.2. The teachers, schools and society reader. (2013).

Benard, S. and Olivia, N. A handbook of research on the education of young children. (2013). London Rutledge.

Louis, C., Lawrence, M. and Keith, M. Research methods in education. (2013). London Rutledge. 7(2)

The miserable family life of migrant workers in post-socialist China

Sometimes change leads to negative transitions in the society. Lixan Fan’s The Last Train Home follows the lives of migrant workers in post-socialist China as they compete to fit in the global capitalist economy. China, before joining the capitalist’s economies was a communist country, and capitalism is a new phenomenon that has broken the family cords and emotional attachment to cause chaotic strife in the families. Therefore, the new capitalist world is characterized by individualism, homelessness, poverty and lack of family ties. Through this film, viewers are able to learn the relationship between a country’s legal institutions and its effects on the social and cultural lives.

The film is contextualized in a time when China has shifted from agrarian period to a period of industrial revolution and economic growth where there is a huge requirement of manual laborers. Nonetheless, due to the high population of China, the monthly payment is very low due to surplus labor and cannot sustain the families in the urban centers as the peasants from rural areas are not recognized by the government as city dwellers (Wang, 2016 p. 14). Zhang’s have not even made any plans to settle in the city even after 17 years of working there. They have to leave their children in the rural areas because they cannot access public schools in the city since the government is unwilling to fulfill its responsibilities to its citizens fairly without any form of discrimination (Wang, 2016 p. 13). Even when Changhua falls sick, he cannot access medical services because he’s not a city dweller but a migrant worker. His wife is even more worried that she won’t finish the labor without her husband’s help. She cannot even tender her sick husband in peace. This is psychological torture this capitalist economy has brought to these families.

The transition from communism to the new capitalist era in China has brought many social changes that have brought trauma to the migrant workers and their families as they live in separation and homelessness.  For instance, Zhang’s family has worked in Guangzhou for 17 years, having migrated from their rural home in Sichuan province due to poverty. Their lives are transformed by the industrious post-socialist China to become hopeless (Wang, 2016 p. 23). They live in a dormitory room just inside the factory they work in. There is no personal space neither sex life, no separation between work and private life. They cannot perform their parental duties as they can only travel home once a year at the New Year’s Day.

China’s new capitalistic legal institution has created a deceptive mentality of freedom and individualism rather than patriarch family. For example, the focus of the Zhang’s, for instance, is to work hard and educate their children as they believe it is the only way to detach from poverty (Svetvilas, 2016 p. 4). However, they cannot offer parental guidance to their children due to separation. Qin, their daughter, is forced to take parental responsibilities as a teenager such as lifting heavy baskets of corn and taking care of her younger siblings (Wang, 2016 p. 12). Due to parental negligence Zhang’s  daughter drop out of school and chooses her way of life which she calls freedom but which is a total lie as she ends up the same fate as her parents. This form of freedom has created wedges in families instead and ruthlessly broken up families. This is a loss of the previous culture of family coexistence, emotional support and a feeling of home.

The film reveals the inequalities in education and infrastructure while Chinese brands of “Made in China” traverse the world as cheap commodities. The director digs into what happens behind the scenes of those products through Zhang’s family as an example of the traumatic experiences of families caught up in the neoliberal China in a style that depicts lies in the perspective of the existence of a free society (Svetvilas, 2016 p. 4). For example, images that depict the city that has undergone adverse effects of capitalism are different from those used to depict the rural areas (Wang, 2016 p. 8). The city has been turned into congested place with many problems such as lack of jobs and high population due to immigration. On the contrary, the rural areas are portrayed as being vibrantly green and peaceful but poor at the same time. For instance, the house in which Changhua and Suqin live is small and lacks privacy. One room is separated from the other by a thin board through which the rumblings of the factories penetrate to remind them of their permanent connection to their work.

Lixin gives the migrant workers a voice by exploring their sufferings in capitalist China. The shots here show enormous congestion, struggles and pain as the workers try to find a train ticket to go back home after a year of hard labor and disconnection with the rest of the family members. Lixan captures this moment of relieve after getting the tickets when Chen Suqin outbursts, the only kind of laughter captured in the film (Wang, 2016 p. 5). This is a special moment as it distances them from the workplace. But again there is nothing to talk about when they get home. The native family structure has been ruined by the capitalist life. Individualism is all that works this time (Wang, 2016 p. 11). This is evident when Qin finds a job at the hotel and later moves to the city as a tailor. Individualism and the feeling of independence captured when she says she doesn’t have to rely on her parents for money. However, the freedom is just a lie by the government, and it dawn on her when she goes to the city.

In conclusion, this film depicts that the social-cultural aspect of the family has been broken, and migrant does not have real families. These families have to undergo through problems of homelessness, lack of jobs and family breakups as they try to cope with both work and family development.  Before the situation was easy because old China practiced communism but the new capitalistic institutions have developed era of individualism. This shows that changes in the legal institutions have a direct effect on the social-cultural lives of the people living in that country.



Svetvilas, C. (2016). Made in China: ‘Last Train Home’ Documents the Life of the Migrant

WorkerInternational Documentary Association. Retrieved 28 March 2016, from

Wang, Y. (2016). Trauma, Migrant Families, and Neoliberal Fantasies in Last Train

Home. Concentric: Literary And Cultural Studies1(42), 2-24.

Nike Globalization


Globalization is defined by Eriksen, (2007)as in integration and interaction system for individuals, organizations and addition to countries of the globe with an aim of growing the global economy. This is a process that impacts on the well-being of the people, environment, society, culture, in addition to economic development and success of countries around the globe. Nike Inc. is an incorporated company whose main area of business is athletic footwear and accessories. This work looks at globalization and its impact on Nike Inc.(Eriksen, 2007).


This is an American Company, started in January 1965 by Bill Bowerman and Phil Knight. It took on the Name Nike Inc. in May 1978. The company is famous in the sports industry with product lines in shoes, shirts, equipment and accessories amongst others. Some of its globally known slogan include just do it. Nike Inc. has in place traditional and modern distribution channels for reaching to approximately two hundred countries where their main market segments are in the United States, Americas and Europe. Globally, Nike has approximately twenty thousand retailers which incorporates Nike Stores, Nike Towns amongst others that are responsible for sale and distribution of Nike Inc. products. The company has 33% market share in footwear for athletics industry(Datamonitor, 2011).

Globalization and its impact

Nike Inc. outcome on globalization has had tremendous benefits for the company. Due to access to a wider pool of talent and labor, the company has been able to produce low priced shoes. In addition, the company has supplied countries with a cheaper option on athletic footwear and equipment. This fuelled the company’s growth. The cheaper production costs gave the company the power to have surplus funds for innovative designs in addition to more money for marketing efforts. Nike gave developed countries the capacity to purchase the best in the market when it came to sports gear and day-day wear. The company gave developed countries an array of options on stylish shoes, fitting shirts and awesome fittings amongst others. Countries like China, Japan and Netherlands amongst many more, have Nike Inc. products at their disposal, meaning they can purchase them at any time. This is important as the company’s is minting huge profits, particularly in China. It is anticipated to see a compounded annual growth rate of seventeen percent in the next two years. This will make Nike reach the thirty two billion mark. Globalization brings with it bigger market shares, translating into bigger profits(Murphy & Matthew, 2001).

In the 1980’s, Nike Inc. started receiving criticism for getting its products from locations and factories that were champions for low wages, human rights violators in addition to deplorable working conditions.  In the 1990s, there were numerous public relations problems that entailed poorly paid workers in Indonesia, Child labor, and deplorable working conditions which joined forces to smear Nikes image. Nike products in the late 1980’s were compared to workers abuse, forced overtime and poor wages. A company once linked to health and fitness, creative marketing and innovative design had a negative image of child abusers showing how globalization can bring about negative risks to the company(Murphy & Matthew, 2001).


Nike inc. is an icon of globalization for sports and commodity culture. The executive management at the company normally reiterate their will to be a global company. The objective is to sell a global brand which can be achieved through marketing that is attractive to diverse and unique local tastes. Hofstede, argued out that there are four sides of national culture.  Hofstede’s theory analyzes culture in relation to countries as opposed to individual characters. Elements such as collectivism can work towards Nike Inc. The fact that its main line of products are sports gear, sports have been known to bring people together in countries. Deeply divided countries will come out as one in support of their sports personalities. Having sports gear under Nike is a unique selling point. On the Uncertainty avoidance index, people embrace champions. For instance, in 2014, Nike was testing a running shoe with a Kenyan athlete, not yet launched in the market. In the London Marathon, the innersole of the shoe came out. Despite this, he still won the race. The company went ahead and apologized in the media for the malfunction. This won the hearts of not only Kenyans, but Africans at large(Datamonitor, 2011).


Globalization has both negative and positive effects. This has worked for and against Nike Inc. some of the advantages the company reaped of from globalization are huge profit margins and a bigger market share. However, globalization at once ruined the company’s image in the 1980’s. Cultures are unique in a globalized market and marketing should be localized to each geographic and cultural region.

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Datamonitor. (2011). DATAMONITOR: NIKE, Inc. NIKE, Inc. SWOT Analysis. Retrieved from

Eriksen, T. H. (2007). Globalization: The Key Concepts. Humanities.

Murphy, D., & Matthew, D. Nike and Global Labour Practices, Case study prepared for the New Academy of Business … 32 (2001). Retrieved from